3. November 2021

Pipenv on Windows fails AttributeError: ‘NoneType’ object has no attribute ‘version_sort’

There is an issue with Python Pipenv on Windows.

The command to open shell with isolated pipenv you can use command:

python -m pipenv shell

The command might fail on Windows with a strange error like this:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "C:\Program Files\WindowsApps\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_3.9.2032.0_x64__qbz5n2kfra8p0\lib\runpy.py", line 197, in _run_module_as_main
    return _run_code(code, main_globals, None,
  File "C:\Program Files\WindowsApps\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_3.9.2032.0_x64__qbz5n2kfra8p0\lib\runpy.py", line 87, in _run_code
    exec(code, run_globals)
  File "C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python39\site-packages\pipenv\__main__.py", line 5, in <module>
    cli()
  File "C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python39\site-packages\pipenv\vendor\click\core.py", line 829, in __call__
    return self.main(*args, **kwargs)
  File "C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python39\site-packages\pipenv\vendor\click\core.py", line 782, in main
    rv = self.invoke(ctx)
  File "C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python39\site-packages\pipenv\vendor\click\core.py", line 1259, in invoke
    return _process_result(sub_ctx.command.invoke(sub_ctx))
  File "C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python39\site-packages\pipenv\vendor\click\core.py", line 1066, in invoke
    return ctx.invoke(self.callback, **ctx.params)
  File "C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python39\site-packages\pipenv\vendor\click\core.py", line 610, in invoke
    return callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python39\site-packages\pipenv\vendor\click\decorators.py", line 73, in new_func
    return ctx.invoke(f, obj, *args, **kwargs)
  File "C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python39\site-packages\pipenv\vendor\click\core.py", line 610, in invoke
    return callback(*args, **kwargs)
  File "C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python39\site-packages\pipenv\cli\command.py", line 429, in shell
    do_shell(
  File "C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python39\site-packages\pipenv\core.py", line 2356, in do_shell
    ensure_project(
  File "C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python39\site-packages\pipenv\core.py", line 576, in ensure_project
    ensure_virtualenv(
  File "C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python39\site-packages\pipenv\core.py", line 498, in ensure_virtualenv
    python = ensure_python(three=three, python=python)
  File "C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python39\site-packages\pipenv\core.py", line 388, in ensure_python
    path_to_python = find_a_system_python(python)
  File "C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python39\site-packages\pipenv\core.py", line 350, in find_a_system_python
    return next(iter(finder.find_all_python_versions()), None)
  File "C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.9_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python39\site-packages\pipenv\vendor\pythonfinder\pythonfinder.py", line 328, in find_all_python_versions
    path_list = sorted(versions, key=version_sort, reverse=True)
AttributeError: 'NoneType' object has no attribute 'version_sort'

The problem is caused by pythonfinder.py which is trying to locate a Python.

You can override the pythonfinder.py by explicitly defining the version of the Python.

Determine the version of installed Python:

python --version

Specify the Python version when starting the shell:

python -m pipenv shell --python 3.9.7

The Python environment should start correctly.

26. December 2019

Build Installer for your Python application – PyInstaller

Do you have your Python application ready? Now it’s time to distribute it. The question is how to bundle it?

One way of bundling Python application into exe/binary file is to use PyInstaller.

You can do it using following commands:

pip install pyinstaller
pyinstaller file_with_main.py

The result will be stored in directory dist. The directory contains one build for the operating system that you’re running.

24. July 2019

Creating Python virtualenv fails with error: Could not find a suitable TLS CA

You can create Python virtualenv using command:

virtualenv -p /usr/bin/python3 py-env3

You may encounter following strange error:

  Collecting setuptools
Exception:
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/usr/share/python-wheels
...
OSError: Could not find a suitable TLS CA certificate bundle, invalid path: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt
...
Error in sys.excepthook:
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/apport_python_hook.py", line 145, in apport_excepthook
    os.O_WRONLY | os.O_CREAT | os.O_EXCL, 0o640), 'wb') as f:
FileNotFoundError: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: '/var/crash/_usr_bin_virtualenv.1000.crash'

The error message is not very clear. Problem is caused by ca-certificates and it could be fixed by command:

sudo update-ca-certificates

20. February 2017

How to send command from Python via MQTT to RGB LED connected to ESP8266

I’ve described how to send server load as a number to MQTT in the previous article. The number could be then translated via Node-RED to command for LampESP with RGB LED. The result is simple. LED indicates server load by displaying different colors.

The other option is to deliver color command directly from the server using Python.

Just install paho-mqtt:

pip install paho-mqtt

Here is small snippet of Python code (publish_server_load.py):

#!/usr/bin/env python3

import paho.mqtt.publish as publish
import os

color = 'red'
load = os.getloadavg()[0]
if load < 0.7:
    color = 'black'
elif load < 1.5:
    color = 'blue'
elif load < 3:
    color = 'green'
elif load < 7:
    color = 'orange'

publish.single('/server/monitoring/command', color, hostname='iot.sinusgear.com')

ESP should listen to /server/monitoring. Code of LampESP 0.3 is available at GitHub.

Put this code into crontab

* * * * * /usr/local/bin/publish_server_load.py

If you’re using virtualenv the command should be:

* * * * * /opt/my-python-env3/bin/python /usr/local/bin/publish_server_load.py

24. May 2015

How to revert no-site-packages for virtualenv on Windows with Python 3.4

Python has support for virtual environment. It’s very handy to set up isolated space where you can store specific packages for the project. You can use command virtualenv to create virtual environment.

It’s very common to add option --no-site-packages which will isolate environment from packages installed in system.

Sometimes it is necessary to revert this option.

Linux and Mac users can control it by mechanism based on one file:

venv/lib/python3.4/no-global-site-packages.txt

When this file exists Python is ignoring packages from system.

In case of Windows there is configuration file stored in venv/pyenv.cfg and you can change configuration of global packages:

home = c:\Python34
include-system-site-packages = true
version = 3.4.3

Change the configuration and call Scripts\Activate.ps1 to load Python virtualenv to PowerShell.